Distance between exposed object and exposure source
during exposure rats were restrained in a closed box (30 cm x 20 cm x15 cm) divided in 4 compartements with holes of 1 cm for ventilation; 6 rats were placed within the device in two such boxes simultaneously
GTEM cell was a pyramidal tapered, dual terminated section with outer cell dimension of 220 cm Œ 120 cm Œ 80 cm; microwave chamber was lined with absorbers to minimize reflections
神経系への影響: oxidative stress in the brain: lipid peroxidation (level of malondialdehyde via thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances), protein oxidation (level of carbonyl groups), level of reduced glutathione (spectrophotometry); cytokine production in the brain: level of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (ELISA)
認知的／行動学的影響評価項目: spatial memory and learning (elevated plus maze, Morris water maze)
In the elevated plus maze and the Morris water maze, the spatial memory and learning was significantly decreased in the exposed groups in comparison to the sham exposed group. No significant differences occurred between the exposure groups. In the exposed group the levels of the lipid oxidation and protein oxidation as well as the levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha were significantly increased and the level of reduced glutathione was significantly decreased compared to the sham exposed group. The authors conclude that exposure to microwaves could lead to cognitive impairments in rats and that these effects could be due to an increased oxidative stress level.