研究のタイプ: 医学/生物学の研究 (experimental study)

[オルニチンデカルボキシラーゼトランスジェニックおよび非トランスジェニックマウスにおける紫外線誘発皮膚腫瘍形成に関する携帯電話放射電波の影響] med./bio.

Effects of mobile phone radiation on UV-induced skin tumourigenesis in ornithine decarboxylase transgenic and non-transgenic mice.

掲載誌: Int J Radiat Biol 2003; 79 (4): 221-233

この研究は、ヒトのオルニチン脱炭酸酵素ODC遺伝子を過剰発現したトランスジェニックマウスとそれと同腹の非トランスジェニックマウス(いずれもメス)を用いて、紫外線UV誘発皮膚腫瘍形成に対する低レベル無線周波電磁放射(RFR)の影響を評価した。トランスジェニック動物および非トランスジェニック動物は、どちらもn = 45-49であった。ばく露群は、52週間、UV単独ばく露、またはUV +パルス化RFRの組み合わせばく露を受けた。UVは、週3回、240 J/ m2の線量で照射された。パルス化RFRは、Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System(DAMPS)タイプまたはGlobal System for Mobile(GSM)タイプのどちらかのRFRを、SAR値0.5 W/ kgで、1.5時間/日、5日/週、ばく露を受けた。ばく露継続中、週1回、巨視的皮膚腫瘍触診検査を行った。すべての皮膚病変および特定の背部皮膚領域については、組織病理学的分析を実施した。その結果、UVばく露による、非トランスジェニック動物およびトランスジェニック動物での巨視的皮膚腫瘍発生率はそれぞれ、11.5 %および36.8 %であった;非トランスジェニック動物およびトランスジェニック動物、または両動物統合においても、皮膚腫瘍発生率にRFRばく露有意な影響を与えなかった;しかし、RFRばく露は、非トランスジェニック動物腫瘍成長をわずかに加速したように見えた、と報告している。

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研究目的(著者による)

To evaluate the effects of mobile phone-type radiofrequency radiation on skin tumorigenesis induced by ultraviolet radiation (UV) in transgenic and non-transgenic mice.

詳細情報

Transgenic mice and their non-transgenic littermates were exposed for 52 weeks to UV radiation or a combination of UV radiation and pulsed radiofrequency radiation. The UV dose was 240 Jm-2 delivered three times a week. One group of mice was exposed to Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System (DAMPS)-type radiofrequency radiation (RFR), the other group to Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)-type radiofrequency radiation (RFR).

影響評価項目

ばく露

ばく露 パラメータ
ばく露1: 849 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: repeated daily exposure for 1.5 h/day, 5 days/week for 52 weeks
  • SAR: 0.5 W/kg average over time (whole body)
  • SAR: 1.5 W/kg peak (whole body) (during the pulses)
ばく露2: 902.4 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: repeated daily exposure for 1.5 h/day, 5 days/week for 52 weeks
  • SAR: 0.5 W/kg average over time (whole body)
  • SAR: 4 W/kg peak (whole body) (during the pulses)

General information

The transgenic and non-transgenic mice were randomized separately to four treatment groups: D-AMPS, GSM or sham exposed and cage-control.

ばく露1

主たる特性
周波数 849 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • guided field
ばく露時間 repeated daily exposure for 1.5 h/day, 5 days/week for 52 weeks
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 6.67 ms
Repetition frequency 50 Hz
Additional information

Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System (D-AMPS)

ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
チャンバの詳細 Three identical rectangular waveguide chambers made of aluminium were used for the D-AMPS, GSM or sham exposures. The exposure system has been described in more detail in the reference article. Computer-controlled mobile phones were used as a signal source and their signals were amplified. Speech was simulated by modulating the carriers with a random sequence of bytes. The output power was absorbed by a coaxial 10 W termination. The sham-exposed group was kept in an unenergised waveguide chamber.
ばく露装置の詳細 The mice were restrained in small acrylic cylinders (32 mm i.d., length adjustable) preventing them from aligning their longitudinal axis parallel to the electric field. The restrainers were kept by a Styrofoam holder at the centre of the cross-section of the waveguide with the longitudinal axis perpendicular to the electric field and to the direction of propagation. Simultaneous exposure of 25 mice was possible in a chamber. The order of animals in the Styrofoam holder was randomized for each exposure session to ensure identical long-term average exposure.
Additional information All but the cage-control groups were exposed to UV radiation three times a week preceding or after the RF exposure. The animals were exposed to UV radiation using lamps simulating the solar spectrum. The dose of the UV radiation was 1.2 human minimum erythemal dose (MED), i.e. a dose of 240 J/m², calculated according to the CIE wavelength erythemal weighting function (spatial variation within ± 10%, uncertainty of the measured values within ± 10%). The distance of the lamp from the animals was adjusted to reach the intended dose in 35 min. During the UV irradiations, the mice were kept in Macrolon III cages with a shallow wire lid preventing them from piling upon each other.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
SAR 0.5 W/kg average over time 計算値 whole body -
SAR 1.5 W/kg peak 計算値 whole body during the pulses

ばく露2

主たる特性
周波数 902.4 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • guided field
ばく露時間 repeated daily exposure for 1.5 h/day, 5 days/week for 52 weeks
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 0.577 ms
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Additional information

GSM

ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
SAR 0.5 W/kg average over time 計算値 whole body -
SAR 4 W/kg peak 計算値 whole body during the pulses

Reference articles

ばく露を受けた生物:

方法 影響評価項目/測定パラメータ/方法

研究対象とした生物試料:
研究対象とした臓器系:
  • skin
調査の時期:
  • ばく露中
  • ばく露後

研究の主なアウトカム(著者による)

UV exposure resulted in development of macroscopic skin tumours in 11.5 and 36.8% of non-transgenic and transgenic mice, respectively. The radiofrequency exposures did not give a statistically significant effect on the development of skin tumours in either transgenic or non-transgenic mice, or in combined analysis, but tumour development appeared slightly accelerated especially in non-transgenic mice. No effects of radiofrequency exposures were found on excretion of 6-hydroxymelatonin sulphate into urine or on polyamine levels in dorsal skin.

研究の種別:

研究助成

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