研究のタイプ: 医学/生物学の研究 (experimental study)

[1800 MHzラジオ周波数照射後の2通りのヒト免疫細胞系のフリーラジカル放射とHSP70発現]. med./bio.

Free radical release and HSP70 expression in two human immune-relevant cell lines after exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation.

掲載誌: Radiat Res 2006; 165 (1): 88-94

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研究目的(著者による)

To study whether 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure at nonthermal level causes production of free radicals and/or expression of heat shock proteins in exponentially growing human immune-relevant cell systems.

詳細情報

Heat shock proteins function as molecular chaperones to protect cells from stress by inhibiting free radical formation.
Free radical release was examined after exposure to incubator control, sham exposure, radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, PMA (to activate cells through the receptor-independent pathway), LPS (to study the receptor-dependent pathway), heat (40 or 42°C) or co-exposure conditions.

影響評価項目

ばく露

ばく露 パラメータ
ばく露1: 1,800 MHz
Modulation type: CW
ばく露時間: continuous for 45 min
  • SAR: 0.5 W/kg average over time
  • SAR: 1 W/kg average over time
  • SAR: 1.5 W/kg average over time
  • SAR: 2 W/kg average over time
ばく露2: 1,800 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous for 45 min
GSM-nonDTX
  • SAR: 0.5 W/kg average over time
  • SAR: 1 W/kg average over time
  • SAR: 1.5 W/kg average over time
  • SAR: 2 W/kg average over time
ばく露3: 1,800 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous for 45 min or 1 h (HSP70 expression)
  • SAR: 0.5 W/kg average over time
  • SAR: 1 W/kg average over time
  • SAR: 1.5 W/kg average over time
  • SAR: 2 W/kg average over time (also used in HSP70 expression experiment)
ばく露4: 1,800 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous for 45 min
  • SAR: 0.5 W/kg average over time
  • SAR: 1 W/kg average over time
  • SAR: 1.5 W/kg average over time
  • SAR: 2 W/kg average over time

General information

Cells were treated concurrently in the same incubator as follows: (1) non-treated (incubator control), (2) sham exposed, (3) RF EMF exposed, (4) sham exposed + 1 µg/ml LPS or 1 µM PMA, (5) co-exposed to RF EMF + LPS or PMA, or (6) exposed to heat (40°C or 42°C) in a separate incubator. Exposures to different SARs or signal-modulated conditions were performed separately. All experiments were carried out for 45 min at 37°C (except for the heat experiment) in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air.

ばく露1

主たる特性
周波数 1,800 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • guided field
ばく露時間 continuous for 45 min
Modulation
Modulation type CW
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
チャンバの詳細 The exposure setup (see reference article) consisted of two single-mode resonator cavities that were placed within the CO2 incubator. Each waveguide was equipped with a fan and monopole field sensors.
ばく露装置の詳細 Six 35-mm Petri dishes were exposed in one waveguide, and a dish holder ensured the correct placement of the dishes in the H-field maxima of the standing waves inside the cavity.
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional information Exposure and sham conditions were blindly assigned to the two waveguides by the computer-controlled signal unit. Field strengths, air temperatures, fan driving currents and all commands were continuously logged. During exposure, the temperature difference between sham and field exposed cultures never exceeded 0.3°C. As shown by numerical simulation, the possibility of temperature hot spots can be excluded.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
SAR 0.5 W/kg average over time 測定値および計算値 - -
SAR 1 W/kg average over time 測定値および計算値 - -
SAR 1.5 W/kg average over time 測定値および計算値 - -
SAR 2 W/kg average over time 測定値および計算値 - -

ばく露2

主たる特性
周波数 1,800 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • guided field
ばく露時間 continuous for 45 min
Additional information GSM-nonDTX
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 0.576 ms
Duty cycle 12.5 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
Additional information

GSM-nonDTX (speaking only): Basic frame with every 26th frame idle, which adds an 8 Hz component to the signal. The crest factor is 8.3.

ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
SAR 0.5 W/kg average over time 測定値および計算値 - -
SAR 1 W/kg average over time 測定値および計算値 - -
SAR 1.5 W/kg average over time 測定値および計算値 - -
SAR 2 W/kg average over time 測定値および計算値 - -

ばく露3

主たる特性
周波数 1,800 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • guided field
ばく露時間 continuous for 45 min or 1 h (HSP70 expression)
Additional information GSM-DTX
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 0.576 ms
Duty cycle 12.5 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
Additional information

GSM-DTX (hearing only): Is activated during periods of not speaking into the phone. The transmission is reduced to 12 active frames per 104 frames, leading to a crest factor of 69. The frame structure results in 2, 8 and 217 Hz components.

ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
SAR 0.5 W/kg average over time 測定値および計算値 - -
SAR 1 W/kg average over time 測定値および計算値 - -
SAR 1.5 W/kg average over time 測定値および計算値 - -
SAR 2 W/kg average over time 測定値および計算値 - also used in HSP70 expression experiment

ばく露4

主たる特性
周波数 1,800 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • guided field
ばく露時間 continuous for 45 min
Additional information GSM-Talk
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 0.576 ms
Duty cycle 12.5 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
Additional information

GSM-Talk (34% speaking and 66% hearing): Simulates a conversation and generates temporal changes between 11 s of GSM-nonDTX and 6 s of GSM-DTX (average durations). The crest factor is 11.9.

ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
SAR 0.5 W/kg average over time 測定値および計算値 - -
SAR 1 W/kg average over time 測定値および計算値 - -
SAR 1.5 W/kg average over time 測定値および計算値 - -
SAR 2 W/kg average over time 測定値および計算値 - -

Reference articles

  • Schuderer J et al. (2004): [1800 MHzのインビトロ実験に用いる強力なばく露および環境制御機能を備えた高尖頭SARばく露装置]

ばく露を受けた生物:

方法 影響評価項目/測定パラメータ/方法

研究対象とした生物試料:
調査の時期:
  • ばく露後

研究の主なアウトカム(著者による)

Heat and PMA treatment induced a significant increase in superoxide radical anions and in reactive oxygen species production in the Mono Mac 6 cells when compared to sham exposure and/or incubator conditions.
In Mono Mac 6 cells or K562 cells no significant differences in free radical production were found after radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure or in the respective controls. No additional effects on superoxide radical anion production were revealed after co-exposure to "radiofrequency electromagnetic fields+PMA" or "radiofrequency electromagnetic fields+LPS".
No significant effects were detected in HSP70 expression levels after different radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposures.

研究の種別:

研究助成

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