この研究は、メスのマウスを用いた実験で、2.45 GHzの低レベルマイクロ波（MW）ばく露が、ストレス反応誘発、あるいは着床または妊娠への影響を引き起こすか否かを調べた。12週齢のメスのマウスに、MW放射（2.45 GHz連続波、電力密度は 0.033549 mW / cm2、比吸収率は0.023023 W / kg）へのばく露を、2時間/日で45日間与えた。ばく露終了後、マウスを屠殺し、着床部位の検査、血中のストレスパラメータ（ヘモグロビン、RBCおよびWBC数、好中球/リンパ球（N / L）比）の測定、脳組織のコメットアッセイ、血漿を用いた一酸化窒素（NO）、プロゲステロンおよびエストラジオールの推定を行った。活性酸素種（ROS）およびROS消去酵素（スーパーオキシドジスムターゼ、カタラーゼ、グルタチオンペルオキシダーゼ）の活性を、肝臓、腎臓、卵巣で測定した。その結果、MWばく露群では、対照群に比べ、着床部位への有意な影響が観察された；MWばく露群では、ROS、ヘモグロビン、RBCおよびWBC数、N/L比、脳細胞のDNA損傷および血漿のエストラジオール濃度の有意な増加とNOレベルおよび抗酸化酵素活性の有意な減少が観察された、と報告している。
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To study the 2.45 GHz low level microwave exposure-induced stress response and its effect on implantation or pregnancy in female mice.
Female mice were divided into two groups (n=6 per group) and exposed or sham exposed for 45 days. After 20 days of exposure, respectively two mice were mated with one male mouse for 5 days (exposure of female mice continued). Afterwards, mice were exposed for another 20 days.
The whole experiment was repeated.
|ばく露時間||continuous for 2 h/day on 45 days|
|Distance between exposed object and exposure source||25 cm|
|ばく露装置の詳細||10 cm long pyramidal horn antenna (throat and mouth dimensions were 7.2 cm x 3.2 cm and 9 cm x 5 cm) placed above the cage; 19.2 cm x 17.6 cm x 15 cm cage made of pine wood, divided into six 6 cm x 8 cm x 15 cm compartments, each holding one mouse during exposure; 1 cm holes drilled into the sides and partition walls, and upper part of the cage kept open for ventilation; mice restrained in the compartments; upper side of the walls, partition walls and base of the cage covered with carbon-impregnated styrofoam microwave absorbers; cage placed on and covered from all sides with microwave absorbers; cage tied to the absorber unit to avoid a change in position in regard to the antenna|
|Sham exposure||A sham exposure was conducted.|
In the exposed group, an unequal/asymmetrical distribution of embryos in the two uterine horns and reduced inter-embryo spaces were observed as compared to the control group. Additionally, no pups were born in the exposed group while a normal number of pups was born in the sham exposed group.
It was found that the hemoglobin content as well as the number of erythrocytes and leukocytes and the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio increased significantly in the exposed group compared to the sham exposed one.
In the comet assay, the brain cells of exposed mice showed a significant increase in the tail moment, in the tail DNA amount and the tail length when compared to control brain cells, i.e. a DNA damage was found in the exposed group.
In the exposed group, a significant decrease in total nitrite and nitrate concentrations was observed in the plasma when compared to the control group.
The levels of estradiol and progesterone in the plasma were increased in the exposed group in comparison to the sham exposed group, but only the value for estradiol was statistically significant.
A significant elevated level of reactive oxygen species in the kidney, liver and ovary was observed in the exposed group as compared to the control group.
Regarding the antioxidant enzyme activities, the activities of the superoxide dismutase, the catalase and the glutathione peroxidase were significantly decreased in the kidney, liver and ovary of the exposed animals in comparison to the sham exposed ones.
The authors conclude that an exposure to low level microwaves (2.45 GHz) could affect the implantation or pregnancy in mice through oxidative stress.