研究のタイプ: 医学/生物学の研究 (experimental study)

[仔ラットの腎臓と精巣の酸化ストレスならびにその関連要素に対して妊娠時から出生後の発育時のWi-Fi(2.45 GHz)ならびに携帯電話(900及び1800 MHz)が誘発するリスク] med./bio.

Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz)- and Mobile Phone (900 and 1800 MHz)-Induced Risks on Oxidative Stress and Elements in Kidney and Testis of Rats During Pregnancy and the Development of Offspring.

掲載誌: Biol Trace Elem Res 2013; 156 (1-3): 221-229

この研究は、妊娠時から出生後の発育時にWi-Fi(2.45GHz)ならびに携帯電話(900または1800MHz)の信号にばく露した仔ラット腎臓精巣酸化ストレスならびにその関連要素への影響を調べた。妊娠した32匹のWisterアルビノ雌ラットから出生した雄の仔ラット96匹を調べた(雌の仔ラットは除外した)。この96匹は、ケージ対照群、2.45GHzばく露群、900MHzばく露群、1800MHzばく露群であり、各群24匹の仔ラット母親の妊娠中から6週齢まで、同じ信号に1日60分、1週間に5日ばく露した。ばく露時のみ、各個体を円筒形拘束器入れ、頭をアンテナに向けて放射状に並べてばく露し、ばく露レベルは、全身平均SARが0.01-1.2-W/kg の範囲であったと記している。ばく露実験継続中に4、5、6週齢に達した時に各群の一部を屠殺して腎臓精巣組織標本を検査した。その結果、4週齢では、電磁界ばく露群において、腎臓精巣での脂質過酸化腎臓での銅、亜鉛還元グルタチオンGSH)、GSHペルオキシダーゼ、抗酸化能(TAS)が低下し、腎臓での鉄および精巣でのビタミンAおよびEの濃度が上昇した;5週齢では、電磁界ばく露群において、腎臓での鉄、ビタミンA、βカロテン濃度が上昇し、GSHとTASレベルが低下した;6週齢では、電磁界ばく露群において、腎臓での鉄濃度および腎臓精巣での脂質過酸化レベルが上昇し、銅、TAS、GSH濃度が低下した、などを報告している。

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研究目的(著者による)

To examine the effects of an exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on oxidative stress and trace element levels in the kidney and testis of rats.

詳細情報

32 pregnant rats and after delivery 96 male pups (the female pups were excluded from the study) were equally divided into 4 groups: 1.) cage stress (sham exposure and/or cage control, contradictory information), 2.) exposure to 2.45 GHz, 3.) exposure to 900 MHz and 4.) exposure to 1800 MHz. From each group, 8 pups were killed and examined at an age of 4, 5 and 6 weeks. After delivery, the dams were not further exposed and excluded from the study.
The levels of trace elements were measured because they often act as cofactors for antioxidative enzymes and are involved in processes preventing oxidative stress.

影響評価項目

ばく露

ばく露 パラメータ
ばく露1: 2.45 GHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: 60 min/day (5 days/week) during gestation and up to 6 weeks following delivery
  • 電力密度: 12 µW/cm² (input power)
  • 電界強度: 10 V/m (at the closest point to the body)
  • SAR: 0.18 W/kg mean (whole body) (± 0.07 W/kg)
  • SAR: 1.2 W/kg maximum (whole body) (0.01-1.2 W/kg)
ばく露2: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: 60 min/day (5 days/week) during gestation and up to 6 weeks following delivery
  • 電力密度: 12 µW/cm² (input power)
  • 電界強度: 10 V/m (at the closest point to the body)
  • SAR: 0.18 W/kg mean (whole body) (± 0.07 W/kg)
  • SAR: 1.2 W/kg maximum (whole body) (0.01-1.2 W/kg)
ばく露3: 1,800 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: 60 min/day (5 days/week) during gestation and up to 6 weeks following delivery
  • 電力密度: 12 µW/cm² (input power)
  • 電界強度: 10 V/m (at the closest point to the body)
  • SAR: 0.18 W/kg mean (whole body) (± 0.07 W/kg)
  • SAR: 1.2 W/kg maximum (whole body) (0.01-1.2 W/kg)

ばく露1

主たる特性
周波数 2.45 GHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
波形
  • pulsed
ばく露時間 60 min/day (5 days/week) during gestation and up to 6 weeks following delivery
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • half-wave dipole antenna
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 25 cm
チャンバの詳細 rats were placed in the cylindrical restrainer (12 rats simultaneously) with the head directed to the antenna
ばく露装置の詳細 exposure system was kept in a specific room that contained plastic furniture such as tables and chairs for protecting the cells from possible radiation reflection, walls of the room were completely covered by chromium-nickel sheets to prevent possible external telemetric exposure
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力密度 12 µW/cm² - - - input power
電界強度 10 V/m - 測定値 - at the closest point to the body
SAR 0.18 W/kg mean 測定値および計算値 whole body ± 0.07 W/kg
SAR 1.2 W/kg maximum 測定値および計算値 whole body 0.01-1.2 W/kg

ばく露2

主たる特性
周波数 900 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
波形
  • pulsed
ばく露時間 60 min/day (5 days/week) during gestation and up to 6 weeks following delivery
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 1 cm
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力密度 12 µW/cm² - - - input power
電界強度 10 V/m - 測定値 - at the closest point to the body
SAR 0.18 W/kg mean 測定値および計算値 whole body ± 0.07 W/kg
SAR 1.2 W/kg maximum 測定値および計算値 whole body 0.01-1.2 W/kg

ばく露3

主たる特性
周波数 1,800 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
波形
  • pulsed
ばく露時間 60 min/day (5 days/week) during gestation and up to 6 weeks following delivery
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 1 cm
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力密度 12 µW/cm² - - - input power
電界強度 10 V/m - 測定値 - at the closest point to the body
SAR 0.18 W/kg mean 測定値および計算値 whole body ± 0.07 W/kg
SAR 1.2 W/kg maximum 測定値および計算値 whole body 0.01-1.2 W/kg

Reference articles

  • Jin Z et al. (2012): [HL-60細胞における900 MHz無線周波電磁界とドキソルビシンの組み合わせばく露の影響]
  • Naziroglu M et al. (2012): [メラトニンはラットの脳及び後根神経節におけるTRPM2及び電位依存性Ca2+チャネルを通じて無線(2.45 GHz)誘導性の酸化的損傷を調節する]
  • Naziroglu M et al. (2012): [2.45 GHz無線機器はヒト白血病がん細胞において酸化ストレスと細胞質でのCa2+流出による増殖を生じる]
  • Ozlem Nisbet H et al. (2012): [成長期ラットの精巣機能および構造に対する電磁界(1.8/0.9 GHz)の影響]
  • Peyman A et al. (2001): [マイクロ波周波数での年齢の関数としてのラット組織の誘電特性の変化]

ばく露を受けた生物:

方法 影響評価項目/測定パラメータ/方法

研究対象とした生物試料:
調査の時期:
  • ばく露後

研究の主なアウトカム(著者による)

At the age of 4 weeks, in all exposure groups, the lipid peroxidation in the kidney and in the testis was significantly decreased compared to the control group. The values for copper, zinc, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxidant status were significantly decreased in the kidney while in the testis the levels of iron, vitamin A and vitamin E were significantly increased in the exposed groups in comparison to the control group.
At the age of 5 weeks, the concentrations of iron, vitamin A and beta-carotene were significantly increased in the kidney of exposed rats in comparison to the control group, while the level of reduced glutathione and the total antioxidant status were significantly decreased.
At the age of six weeks, the exposed rats showed a significantly increased concentration of iron in the kidney and lipid peroxidation in the kidney and testis compared to the control rats, however the level of copper and reduced glutathione as well as the total antioxidant status were significantly decreased.
The authors conclude that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields caused oxidative stress and decreased the level of antioxidants.

研究の種別:

研究助成

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