研究のタイプ: 医学/生物学の研究 (experimental study)

[携帯電話マイクロ波にばく露した後のヒト細胞における遺伝子発現の変化] med./bio.

Gene expression changes in human cells after exposure to mobile phone microwaves.

掲載誌: Proteomics 2006; 6 (17): 4745-4754

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研究目的(acc. to editor)

To study the effects of microwaves emitted by mobile phones on gene expression patterns in human cells.

詳細情報

Six human cell types, immortalized cell lines and primary cells, were exposed. Immortalized cell lines can be standardized, but they are different from primary cells or even genetically instable. This can lead to changes in apoptosis, cell proliferation, and cell differentiation.
The work is part of the REFLEX project (Risk Evaluation of Potential Environmental Hazards From Low Energy Electromagnetic Field Exposure Using Sensitive in vitro Methods), funded by the European Union.

影響評価項目

ばく露

ばく露 パラメータ
ばく露1: 1,800 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: intermittent, 5 min on/10 min off, for 24 h
NB69 cells
ばく露2: 1,800 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous for 1 h
E.A.hy926 cells
  • SAR: 2.5 W/kg (1.8-2.5 W/kg)
ばく露3: 1,800 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: intermittent, 10 min on/20 min off, for 44 h
T-lymphocytes
  • SAR: 1.4 W/kg
ばく露4: 1,800 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: intermittent, 5 min on/5 min off, for 24 h
HL-60 cells
ばく露5: 1,800 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous for 24 h
HL-60 cells
  • SAR: 1.3 W/kg
ばく露6: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous for 1 h
E.A.hy926 cells
  • SAR: 2.5 W/kg (1.8-2.5 W/kg)
ばく露7: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous for 1 h
U937 and CHME5 cells

ばく露1

主たる特性
周波数 1,800 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • guided field
ばく露時間 intermittent, 5 min on/10 min off, for 24 h
Additional information NB69 cells
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 576 µs
Rise time 15 µs
Fall time 15 µs
Duty cycle 12.5 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Additional information

GSM basic mode with every 26th frame idle which adds an 8-Hz modulation component to the signal

ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • 空洞共振器
  • IT'IS waveguide exposure setup for NB69 cells, E.A.hy926 cells, T-lymphocytes, and HL-60 cells
チャンバの詳細 Two single-mode cavities equipped with a fan were placed inside a CO2 incubator. Exposure and sham conditions were blindly assigned by the computer-controlled signal unit. Monopole antennas were integrated to monitor and control the incident field.
ばく露装置の詳細 Six 35-mm Petri dishes were placed in each waveguide in a dish holder holding them in the H-field maximum of the standing wave. The system enabled the exposure of monolayers of cells with an SAR non-uniformity of less than 30%.
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional information The air flow temperature monitored with accurate Pt100 probes showed differences of less than 0.1°C between exposed and sham waveguides. A numerical heat flow analysis showed that hot spots inside the medium could be excluded.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
SAR 2 W/kg - 測定値および計算値 - -

ばく露2

主たる特性
周波数 1,800 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • guided field
ばく露時間 continuous for 1 h
Additional information E.A.hy926 cells
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 576 µs
Rise time 15 µs
Fall time 15 µs
Duty cycle 12.5 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Additional information

GSM basic mode

ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
SAR 2.5 W/kg - 測定値および計算値 - 1.8-2.5 W/kg

ばく露3

主たる特性
周波数 1,800 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • guided field
ばく露時間 intermittent, 10 min on/20 min off, for 44 h
Additional information T-lymphocytes
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 576 µs
Rise time 15 µs
Fall time 15 µs
Duty cycle 12.5 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Additional information

GSM basic mode

ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
SAR 1.4 W/kg - 測定値および計算値 - -

ばく露4

主たる特性
周波数 1,800 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • guided field
ばく露時間 intermittent, 5 min on/5 min off, for 24 h
Additional information HL-60 cells
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 576 µs
Rise time 15 µs
Fall time 15 µs
Duty cycle 12.5 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Additional information

GSM DTX mode

ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
SAR 1 W/kg - 測定値および計算値 - -

ばく露5

主たる特性
周波数 1,800 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • guided field
ばく露時間 continuous for 24 h
Additional information HL-60 cells
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 576 µs
Rise time 15 µs
Fall time 15 µs
Duty cycle 12.5 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Additional information

GSM DTX mode

ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
SAR 1.3 W/kg - 測定値および計算値 - -

ばく露6

主たる特性
周波数 900 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • guided field
ばく露時間 continuous for 1 h
Additional information E.A.hy926 cells
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 576 µs
Rise time 15 µs
Fall time 15 µs
Duty cycle 12.5 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Additional information

GSM basic mode

ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • 空洞共振器
  • モノポール
  • high-Q, TE10 mode, STUK waveguide exposure setup for E.A.hy926 cells
チャンバの詳細 The exposure chamber was positioned vertically inside a cell culture incubator.
ばく露装置の詳細 Two 55-mm glass Petri dishes were placed in such a way that the E-field vector was parallel to the plane of the culture medium.
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional information Temperature-controlled water was circulated through a thin (9 mm) rectangular glass fibre moulded waterbed underneath the Petri dishes [Leszczynski et al., 2002].
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
SAR 2.5 W/kg - 測定値および計算値 - 1.8-2.5 W/kg

ばく露7

主たる特性
周波数 900 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • guided field
ばく露時間 continuous for 1 h
Additional information U937 and CHME5 cells
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 576 µs
Rise time 15 µs
Fall time 15 µs
Duty cycle 12.5 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Additional information

GSM basic mode

ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • wire patch cell [Laval et al., 2000], PIOM/IT'IS exposure setup for U937 and CHME5 cells
ばく露装置の詳細 The wire patch cell (WPC) accommodated eight 3.5-cm Petri dishes in the following way: Each Petri dish was positioned inside a 5-cm outer dish filled with distilled water. Two of these double Petri dishes were piled up, and four of these stacks were placed in the WPC.
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
SAR 2 W/kg - 測定値および計算値 - -

Reference articles

  • Leszczynski D et al. (2002): [ヒトの上皮細胞の携帯電話によるhsp27/p38MAPKストレスの非熱活性化:がん関連とBBB関連効果の分子的メカニズム]
  • Laval L et al. (2000): [900 MHzの携帯電話周波数用の新しいIn vitro用ばく露装置]
  • Moros EG et al. (1999): [不均一な比吸収率の熱的測定中のごく少量の熱拡散の仮定について]

ばく露を受けた生物:

方法 影響評価項目/測定パラメータ/方法

研究対象とした生物試料:
調査の時期:
  • ばく露後

研究の主なアウトカム(著者による)

Exposed CHME5 microglial cells, NB69 neuroblastoma cells, and T lymphocytes did not show significant changes in gene expression.
In HL-60 leukemia cells, EA.hy926 endothelial cells, and U937 lymphoblastoma cells between 12 and 34 up-regulated or down-regulated genes were found. Changes depended on cell type and radiofrequency electromagnetic field signal. Analysis of the affected gene families did not point towards a stress response. However, following microwave irradiation, some but not all human cells might react with an increase in expression of genes encoding ribosomal proteins and therefore up-regulating the cellular metabolism.

研究の種別:

研究助成

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