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To examine whether a GSM signal effects the reproductive pattern by targeting the biochemistry of sperm.
Two experiments were performed. For the first experiment, male rats were divided into a sham exposure or an exposure group (n=6 per group). Blood was collected immediately after exposure for a testosterone assay. Immediately after the last exposure, the rats were sacrificed and the sperms collected. The caspase-3 activity was measured and sperm samples were morphological examined.
For the second experiment, 18 rats were divided into two groups: sham exposed group (male=3, female =6) and exposed group (male=3, female=6). After the exposure, rats of each group were mated. The number and the weight of the pups were regarded.
|ばく露時間||continuous for 2 h/day for 45 days|
|Pulse width||0.577 ms|
|Repetition frequency||216.7 Hz|
|チャンバの詳細||rats placed individually in 18-22 cm long, 5.7 cm high and 4-7 cm wide Plexiglas cages, fixed with anechoic material and ventilated with 1 cm diameter holes; the cages were pasted with anechoic material on two sides of each box (top was not covered)|
|ばく露装置の詳細||mobile phone positioned on the top of the cage; mobility of the rats in the cage was limited to 1-2 cm; cell phones in silent mode without vibration|
|Sham exposure||A sham exposure was conducted.|
Spermatozoa from exposed rats showed significant morphological changes in midpiece region, microtubules, outer dense fibers of mitochondria and membranes and distortions in sperm head, compared to sham exposed rats. A statistically significant increase in activation of caspase-3 was observed in the sperm of exposed animals compared to sham exposed animals. Serum testosterone level was significantly decreased in exposed animals in comparison to sham exposed ones.
Exposed parents produced litters with a significantly decreased number of pups and the average body weight of the pups was significantly lower in comparison to those of sham exposed parents.