Two R14 waveguide chambers containing field and temperature sensors were placed in a humidified incubator (5% CO2, 37°C). Sensor-monitored fans enforced airflow through the waveguide chamber and kept the temperature difference between sham and EMF exposed cultures below 0.2°C.
The RF signal was directed via computer-controlled RF switch to one of the waveguide chambers (blinded). Petri dishes (60 mm diameter) were positioned in the H-field maximum of a standing wave and exposed in E-polarization.
Power line signal consisting of a dominant 50 Hz sinusoidal and harmonics up to 1250 Hz. The amplitude distribution of the harmonics was derived from the maximum accepted distortions for power systems by the IEC.
Two magnetically shielded four-coil systems [Schuderer et al., 2004] were placed in an incubator. Accurate Pt 100 probes monitoring the airflow temperature and two fans per exposure chamber ensured that the temperature difference between field and sham chambers was kept below 0.2°C.
The currents in the bifilar coils were randomly switched parallel for field exposure or non-parallel for sham exposure by computer (blinded). The coil current and consequently the magnetic field was quasi-continuously (30 s intervals) recorded and regulated using resistors providing very low temperature sensitivity.
The estimated acceleration load due to B-field-induced coil vibrations was <1 m/s² (0.1 g) for the exposed Petri dishes. This acceleration is a factor of 20 above the minimal background level for sham Petri dishes.
Kim J et al.
Repetitive exposure to a 60-Hz time-varying magnetic field induces DNA double-strand breaks and apoptosis in human cells.
Marcantonio P et al.
Synergic effect of retinoic acid and extremely low frequency magnetic field exposure on human neuroblastoma cell line BE(2)C.
Xu S et al.
Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation induces oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA in primary cultured neurons.
Hoyto A et al.
Radiofrequency radiation does not significantly affect ornithine decarboxylase activity, proliferation, or caspase-3 activity of fibroblasts in different physiological conditions.
Kim TH et al.
Local exposure of 849 MHz and 1763 MHz radiofrequency radiation to mouse heads does not induce cell death or cell proliferation in brain.
Whitehead TD et al.
The number of genes changing expression after chronic exposure to Code Division Multiple Access or Frequency DMA radiofrequency radiation does not exceed the false-positive rate.
Zeng Q et al.
Effects of global system for mobile communications 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on gene and protein expression in MCF-7 cells.
Nylund R et al.
Mobile phone radiation causes changes in gene and protein expression in human endothelial cell lines and the response seems to be genome- and proteome-dependent.